The study of filtering of urine from the human body for its smooth functioning is called Urology. The branch of medicine that deals with diseases related to male reproductive organ and the female urinary tract are the main concern of Urology. Organs like urinary bladder adrenal glands kidneys, urethra and reproductive organs of male like prostate, seminal vesicles, testis, and penis fall under the treatment and category of Urology.
Urologists undergo a training of five years out of which 12 months are spent in general surgery next 36 months in urology. Advanced study of such branches includes the study of surgery and transplantation of such organs long with their regular medical practices.
Urology can be classified into the following types:
- Laparoscopy involves surgery in kidney, prostrate and ureters using robotic means.
- Endourology involves surgery with minimal wear and tear and is the closed operation of the Urinary tract
- Neurourology deals with a nervous system that controls genital system. The problem in the nervous system can cause disorders like detrusor over activity, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence.
- Urological disorder in children are termed as Pediatric Urology
- In cases of male infertility, ejaculatory disorder, erectile dysfunction and other male reproductive organ oriented issues. It is termed as Audiology.
- Similarly, when it is oriented to female reproductive organs such as pelvic organs and urinary tracts it is termed as female urology
Diseases that are congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system are termed as a Urologic disease. Much best urology hospital in India are very famous all over the world for their effective treatment procedure.
Nonfunctioning of Kidney is termed as Renal Failure. It can be divided into categories like prerenal, postrenal or intrinsic renal failure. Outlet obstruction of the kidney due to prostate or stone is termed post renal failure disease caused due to nephritis or drug toxication is called intrinsic renal failure and the failure of blood to functional nephron is termed as a prerenal failure.
Growing of bacteria and other fungal bodies over the urinary tract leads to an infection that leads to improper functioning of the body. They lead to many disorders like:
- Urinary tract infection
- Inflammation of prostrate i.e. Prostatitis
- Overgrowing of Prostrate(Benign prostatic hyperplasia)
- Involuntary loss of urine (Incontinence)
- Renal cell Carcinoma and Transitional cell carcinoma (Bladder and kidney cancer respectively
Some common urological diseases are:
- BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) caused due to enlargement of prostrate it cause pressure in the urethra and the need to urinate several times. Generally solved by medication, but involves surgery in severe cases.
- Urinary Incontinence where the bladder loses control and the patient loses control on urination. Caused due to many factors like enlarged prostate, weak sphincter muscle, injury to the spinal cord, diabetes etc. Mainly diet change and nutritive diet suggested by a doctor but surgery can also be suggested in severe cases.
- Urinary Tract infection mainly caused in females due to the accumulation of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed by the doctors to clear down the germs caused.
- Kidney and Ureteral stones
Conclusion: Various tests are performed to detect urological diseases. Urinalysis is the study of urine for analysis. It can be dipstick urinalysis to determine various chemical level in urine or MC&S. Ultrasound used for problems related to urinary tract and kidney. Also there is radiology to assist in emergency. Urodynamic tests to estimate the flow of urine down to urinary glands and their flow from the bladder